Algae. 2007; 22(2): 57-67.
Phylogenetic Relationships among Diverse Dinoflagellate Species Occurring in Coastal Waters off Korea Inferred from Large Subunit Ribosomal DNA Sequence Data
Keun-Yong Kim* and Chang-Hoon Kim
Department of Aquaculture, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, South Korea
We analyzed the nuclear-encoded large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA) sequences of 19 dinoflagellates occurring in costal waters off Korea and reconstructed a phylogenetic tree containing 74 representative species from 37 distinct genera. Of these, the LSU rDNA sequences of Amylax triacantha (Jorgensen) Sournia, Gonyaulax verior Sournia (= Amylax diacantha Meunier), Gyrodinium fissum (Levander) Kofoid et Swezy, Katodinium glaucum (Lebour) Lebour III, Noctiluca scintillans (Macartney) Kofoid et Swezy, Oxyphysis oxytoxoides Kofoid, and Pyrophacus steinii (Schiller) Wall et Dale are reported for the first time. Our LSU rDNA tree consistently placed Oxyrrhis marina Dujardin and N. scintillans at the most primitive positions, giving rise to a strongly supported monophyletic group of typical dinoflagellate species belonging to the Dinophyceae. The phylogenetic relationships among the typical dinoflagellates, however, were not resolved in the higher taxonomic levels in general. Only genera at terminal branches were usually supported with high confidence. The Dinophysiales, represented by Dinophysis species and O. oxytoxoides, formed a strongly supported monophyletic assemblage. The Gymnodiniales and Peridiniales were recovered as polyphyletic groupings. Members of the Gonyaulacales were consistently grouped together, but lacked statistical support. Within this order, the Ceratiaceae and Goniodomataceae each formed a monophyletic group, but the Gonyaulacaceae was polyphyletic. The phylogenetic relationships of the Gonyaulacaceae were generally congruent with differences in the combinations of the apical pore complex, hypothecal organization and thecal formula.
dinoflagellates, LSU rDNA, phylogeny