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Algae > Volume 37(2); 2022 > Article
Algae 2022;37(2): 163-174. doi: https://doi.org/10.4490/algae.2022.37.6.7
Effects of light-emitting diodes on protoplast regeneration from gametophytic cells of the commercial kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae)
Jose Avila-Peltroche1,2, Boo Yeon Won1, Tae Oh Cho1,2,*
1Department of Life Science, Chosun University, Gwangju 61452, Korea
2Department of Integrative Biological Sciences & BK21 FOUR Educational Research Group for Age-associated Disorder Control Technology, Chosun University, Gwangju 61452, Korea
*Corresponding Author  Tae Oh Cho, Tel: +82-62-230-7161, Fax: +82-62-230-7467, 
Email: tocho@chosun.ac.kr
Received: April 19, 2022;  Accepted: June 7, 2022.  Published online: June 21, 2022.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) are a lighting source useful for the precise evaluation of light quality effect on biological systems. Despite the importance of light spectra on the regeneration of land plant protoplasts (“naked cells”), this factor has not been tested yet on protoplasts from multicellular algae. This study reports on the effects of pure primary colors (red, blue, and green), dichromatic (red plus blue, RB, 1 : 2) and white LEDs on protoplast regeneration from male and female Undaria pinnatifida gametophytes. We also evaluated the effect of different light spectra on pigment composition (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthine), and the light intensities under the best condition on the regeneration process. In the early stages, blue or RB LEDs increased the percentage of dividing female protoplasts, whereas red, blue, and RB LEDs enhanced that of dividing male protoplasts. In the later stages, RB LEDs showed a positive effect only on the percentage of multiple rhizoid-like protrusions (male gametophyte). They also increased the final area of both regenerated gametophytes. The LEDs did not affect pigment composition in female gametophytes. In male gametophytes, in contrast, they reduced chlorophyll c, while blue, RB, and green LEDs decreased fucoxanthin. Under RB LEDs, the optimal light intensity was 80 μmol photons m-2 s-1 for female gametophytes and 40 to 60 μmol photons m-2 s-1 for male gametophytes. Our results suggest that dichromatic LED illumination (red–blue) improves regeneration of U. pinnatifida gametophyte-isolated protoplasts. Thus, dichromatic LEDs might a suitable light source for enhancing protoplast regeneration in brown seaweeds.
Key words: brown algae; gametophytes; light-emitting diodes (LEDs); pigment composition; protoplast regeneration; Undaria pinnatifida

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