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ALGAE > Volume 21(2); 2006 > Article
ALGAE 2006;21(2): 161-168. doi: https://doi.org/10.4490/algae.2006.21.2.161
Cryptic Processes in the Sea: A Review of Delayed Development in the Microscopic Life Stages of Marine Macroalgae
Laura T. Carney* and Matthew S. Edwards
Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92107, USA
The ability to survive long periods of unfavorable environmental conditions and to recover following severe disturbances is crucial to the persistence of populations occurring in temporally variable environments. To compensate for this variability, many species have developed life histories in which the adult life stages become dormant or exhibit reduced metabolic activity during unfavorable conditions and then re-establish activity when conditions improve (Cohen 1966; Hinton 1968; Crowe 1971; Hochachka and Guppy 1987; Edwards 2000; Kortner and Geiser 2000). Alternatively, if adult mortality is severe, some species can delay their development as more resistant immature or alternate life stages (Cohen 1966; Tauber and Tauber 1978; Venable and Lawlor 1980; Grice and Marcus 1981; Hollibaugh et al. 1981; Maier 1990; Pake and Venable 1996). Such cases of delayed development are often considered as temporal dispersal strategies and a trade-off with spatial dispersal strategies (Venable and Lawlor 1980; Levin et al. 1984; Cohen and Levin 1987; Edwards 2000).

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